Experimental Designs Case Studies

Experimental Designs Case Studies

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SMARTs

Adaptive Approach to Naltrexone Treatment for Alcoholism

Naltrexone (NTX) is an opioid receptor antagonist used to prevent alcoholism relapse. This trial examines how to define “non-response” to treatment with NTX and what treatments are most effective for those who do or do not respond to the initial treatment.
SMARTs

Adaptive Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Use

Researchers in this study are developing an adaptive treatment for adolescent marijuana users. They are studying the use and combination of several efficacious treatments, including behavioral therapy, contingency management, behavioral parent training, and working memory training via a SMART trial.
SMARTs

Adaptive Intervention for Suicide Prevention Among College Students

Researchers in this study are developing an adaptive treatment to address suicidality in college students seeking services at college counseling centers. They are developing the first empirically validated approach to sequence treatments for students seeking services.
SMARTs

Adaptive Interventions for Children with ADHD

The aim of this SMART is to understand whether to begin with medication or behavioral therapy for children with ADHD, and whether to intensify or augment initial treatment for children who do not respond to treatment.
SMARTs

Adaptive Interventions for Minimally Verbal Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Community

This study will compare two types of intensive, daily instruction for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who use only minimal verbal communication. Earlier research has shown that even after early language-skills training, about one-third of school-aged children with ASD remain minimally verbal. Researchers plan to enroll 200 children in four cities: Los Angeles, Nashville, New York City, and Rochester, N.Y.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Adolescent Obesity

This project targets African American adolescents with obesity and their parents. SMARTs are used to develop an adaptive intervention that increases skills in changing dietary, exercise, and sedentary behaviors.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Bipolar Disorder

Patients suffering from bipolar disorder are assigned to one of two mood stabilizers. A SMART design is used to determine the appropriate treatment for patients who develop depression.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Cocaine Dependence

A SMART design is being implemented to develop an adaptive intervention to increase treatment engagement and decrease cocaine use for patients who are cocaine dependent. The study also examines whether patient choice of care affects patient outcomes.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Growth Suppression in Children with ADHD

Studies show that the use of stimulants for the control of ADHD in youth leads to a reduction in height gain. This study uses a SMART design to examine the effectiveness of temporary breaks in medicinal treatments and caloric supplementation for the treatment of stimulant-induced weight and growth suppression.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Persistent Insomnia

This project aims to develop an adaptive intervention for persistent insomnia. Researchers are using a SMART design to determine the best sequencing of cognitive behavioral therapy and medication for persistent insomnia.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Pregnant Women Who Abuse Drugs

Researchers have developed an intensive relapse-prevention program for pregnant women who abuse drugs. A SMART design is being used to develop an adaptive intervention where the intensity and scope of the relapse-prevention program is adjusted based on the evolving status of each woman.
SMARTs

Adaptive Treatment for Smoking Among People With HIV

Between 50% and 70% of people living with HIV are nicotine dependent. This SMART examines how and when to apply contingency management and standard treatment to promote smoking cessation in this population.
MRTs

BariFit MRT

Researchers are conducting this quality-improvement MRT aiming to promote weight maintenance through increased activity and improved diet among people who received bariatric surgery. At the time it was developed, this project was novel in that it implemented separate randomizations at the start of the study, on a daily basis, and five times throughout the day.
SMARTs

Characterizing Cognition in Nonverbal Individuals With Autism

In order to develop communication skills among school-aged children who are nonverbal, this project employs a SMART design to test a novel intervention. The intervention includes components that focus on spoken language and the use of a speech-generating device (e.g., iPad). The SMART design provides the data needed to define response and nonresponse to the intervention and identify the best treatment sequence.
MRTs

Heartsteps

This project tests the feasibility and effectiveness of providing, via a smartphone, just-in-time tailored physical activity suggestions as well as evening prompts to plan the following day’s physical activity so as to help sedentary individuals increase their activity. The resulting data will be used to inform the development of a JITAI for increasing physical activity.
MRTs

MRT to Promote Engagement with Purpose-Driven Well-Being App

JOOL is a behavioral health and well?being app that is designed to help people monitor and improve their sleep, presence, activity, creativity, and eating, with the ultimate goal of helping people move closer to fulfilling their life’s purpose. This MRT aims to understand whether push notifications of tailored health messages are useful in promoting engagement with the JOOL app; and, if so, when and under what circumstances they are most effective.
SMARTs

Pilot SMART for Adolescent Depression

Adolescents suffering from depression begin treatment with interpersonal psychotherapy. This pilot project employs a SMART design to help establish treatment rules regarding when and in what way to intensify treatment.
SMARTs

Pilot SMART for Elementary Students With Autism Spectrum Disorder

This project will develop an adaptive intervention to improve ​social connectedness​, academic engagement, and other skills among school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder​. Treatment for each participant includes some combination of a playground-based intervention, a classroom-based intervention, a peer-mediated intervention, and a parent-assisted intervention.​ This pilot project will address feasibility and acceptability concerns and will provide preliminary data for a full-scale SMART.
SMARTs

Pilot SMART for Personalizing Treatment for Child Depression

This pilot project uses a SMART design to develop an adaptive intervention for children with depression. Dr. Eckshtain aims to develop decision rules regarding the use of cognitive behavioral treatment, caregiver–child treatment, or both. The goal is to develop an adaptive treatment protocol for depressed children.
SMARTs

Pilot SMART for Treating ADHD in Families

This project aims to develop an adaptive intervention for families where the mother has ADHD and the child is at genetic and environmental risk for ADHD. Researchers are using SMART to determine how to use behavioral training or medication for mothers separately, in sequence, or in combination, to improve the quality of parenting and prevent the progression of ADHD in children.
MRTs

Sense2Stop

This project tests the feasibility of conducting an MRT aiming to investigate whether real-time sensor-based assessments of stress are useful in optimizing the provision of just-in-time prompts to support stress-management in chronic smokers attempting to quit. The resulting data will be used to inform the development of a JITAI for smoking cessation.
MRTs

Smartphone Addiction Recovery Coach (SARC) MRT

The smartphone addiction recovery coach (SARC) project tests the feasibility and effectiveness of providing, via smartphone, messages designed to encourage use of the ecological momentary interventions (EMIs) to support young adults enrolled in an outpatient substance-use program as they recover from disordered substance use.
MRTs

Substance Abuse Research Assistance (SARA)

The Substance Abuse Research Assistance (SARA) is an app for gathering data about substance use in high-risk populations. App developers are using an MRT to improve engagement with completion of the self-report data collection measures. At the time this summary was written, this MRT is unique in that it has an engagement component, but not a treatment one.

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Portions of this website and the related scientific research were funded by National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) awards P50 DA039838 and P50 DA010075 to The Methodology Center at Penn State, Institute for Educational Sciences award R324B180003 and NIDA award R01 DA039901 to the University of Michigan.

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